The wood is compatible with adhesives, has low shrinkage, and is good for pulping and other light-duty uses [14,21,71,167].
- david deangelo double your dating for
- muslim dating site in nigeria
- Adult chat 45p
- speed dating adelaide australia htm
In northern Idaho, the grand fir type merges into western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on cooler sites . ponderosa) are major seral species in climax interior grand fir habitats [49,74,145,172].
Western larch (Larix occidentalis), Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. Understory associates are many: pachistima (Pachistima myrsinites), common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), baldhip rose (Rosa gymnocarpa), blue huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum), white spirea (Spiraea betufolia), twinflower (Linnea borealis), beargrass (Xerophyllum tenax), queencup beadlily (Clintonia uniflora), and wild ginger (Asarum caudatum) are among the most common [43,145,49].
Common plant community associates of grand fir are grouped below by region.
Mature grand fir stands are usually floristically diverse [43,71].
Woodpeckers use grand fir habitats but often select other tree species within the type over grand fir for foraging and nesting [14,26,29,118,129].
In a study of woodpecker foraging activities in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, Bull and others  found that foraging among 8 species of woodpecker was consistently lower on grand fir than on Pacific ponderosa pine, Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine, western larch, and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir.
Washington, Oregon, and California: Grand fir occurs on moist to dry sites in the Cascade Range.
Overstory associates on moist sites may include western hemlock, western redcedar, Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).
In the continental interior it occurs from the Okanagan and Kootenay lakes region of British Columbia south to eastern Oregon, central Idaho, and west of the Continental Divide in Montana [71,174].